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Clinical References on Graviola (Annona muricata)

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GRAVIOLA

Clinical References on Graviola (Annona muricata)

Kim GS, Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata.Phytochemistry 1998 Sep;49(2):565-71
(Abstract Available)

Lopez Abraham AM, et.al., [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. I.] Rev Cubana Med Trop, 31: 2, 1979 May-Aug, 97-104
(Abstract Available)

Hernández L., et.al., Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico. Am J Hosp Pharm, 41: 10, 1984 Oct, 2060-4
(Abstract Available)

Bories C., et.a., Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds. Planta Med, 57: 5, 1991 Oct, 434-6
(Abstract Available)

Wu FE, et.al., Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 830-6
(Abstract Available)

Wu FE, et.al., Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata. J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 902-8
(Abstract Available)

Wu FE, et.al., New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 909-15
(Abstract Available)

Wu FE, et.al., Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J Nat Prod, 58: 9, 1995 Sep, 1430-7
(Abstract Available)

Kooiman P., Structures of the galactomannans from seeds of Annona muricata, Arenga saccharifera, Cocos nucifera, Convolvulus tricolor, and Sophora japonica. Carbohydr Res, 20: 2, 1971 Dec, 329-37

Bourne RK., A preliminary study of the sedative effects of Annona muricata (sour sop). West Indian Med J, 28: 2, 1979 Jun, 106-10

Rieser MJ., et.al., Bioactive single-ring acetogenins from seed extracts of Annona muricata. Planta Med, 59: 1, 1993 Feb, 91-2




Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata.
Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, Sastrodihardjo S, McLaughlin JL
Phytochemistry 1998 Sep;49(2):565-71
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA.
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, muricoreacin (1) and murihexocin C (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities among six human tumor cell lines with selectivities to the prostate adenocarinoma (PC-3) and pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) cell lines.


[Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. I.]
Lopez Abraham AM; Rojas Hernandez NM; Jimenez Misas CA
Rev Cubana Med Trop, 31: 2, 1979 May-Aug, 97-104
Abstract
The cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Fitolacaceae, Compositae, Moraceae, Zingiberaceae, Martiniaceae, Mirtaceae, Verbenaceae and Annonaceae was assessed. The Kubas microbiologic method and the fungus Ascomiceto Neurospora crassa were used in the assessment. The fungus growth was measured in millimeters. Inhibition percentages for every case regarding control are reported. The best results were obtained from Annona muricata, Costus spiralis, Cecropia peltata, Xanthium chinense and Pluchea adorata extracts.


Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.
Hernández L; Muñoz RA; Miró G; Martínez M; Silva-Parra J; Chávez PI
Am J Hosp Pharm, 41: 10, 1984 Oct, 2060-4
Abstract
The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension.


Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds.
Bories C; Loiseau P; Cortes D; Myint SH; Hocquemiller R; Gayral P; Cavé A; Laurens A
Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
Planta Med, 57: 5, 1991 Oct, 434-6
Abstract
Methanolic extracts of Annona muricata and A. cherimolia (Annonaceae) seeds were tested for antiparasitic acetogenins isolated from these extracts are found to be responsible for the important activity on infective larvae of Molinema desetae.


Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata.
Wu FE; Gu ZM; Zeng L; Zhao GX; Zhang Y; McLaughlin JL; Sastrodihardjo S
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 830-6
Abstract
The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded eight monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins. Two of them, annomuricins A [1] and B [2], whose chemical structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, are novel and unusual. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are vicinal, with the vicinal group of 1 threo and that of 2 erythro. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Six monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, previously described in the seeds, were found in the leaves; these are gigantetrocin A, annonacin-10-one, muricatetrocins A and B, annonacin, and goniothalamicin.


Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.
Wu FE; Zeng L; Gu ZM; Zhao GX; Zhang Y; Schwedler JT; McLaughlin JL; Sastrodihardjo S
J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 902-8
Abstract
The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded the novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, muricatocins A [1] and B [2]. Each compound possesses five hydroxyl groups, with two hydroxyl groups at the C-10 and C-12 positions. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 (except for positions C-10 and C-12) were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10, C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against the A-549 human lung tumor cell line. Three known monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, annonacin A, (2,4-trans)-isoannonacin, and (2,4-cis)-isoannonacin, were also found.


New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata.
Wu FE; Zeng L; Gu ZM; Zhao GX; Zhang Y; Schwedler JT; McLaughlin JL; Sastrodihardjo S
J Nat Prod, 58: 6, 1995 Jun, 909-15
Abstract
The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded two additional monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C [1] and muricatocin C [2]. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are at the C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 positions in 1 and 2, respectively. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2, except for positions C-10 and C-11 or C-12, were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicities against the A-549 human lung and the MCF-7 human beast solid tumor cell lines. One known onotetrahydrofuran acetogenin, gigantetronenin, not described previously from this plant, was also found.


Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata.
Wu FE; Zhao GX; Zeng L; Zhang Y; Schwedler JT; McLaughlin JL; Sastrodihardjo S
J Nat Prod, 58: 9, 1995 Sep, 1430-7
Abstract
In a continuation of our research on bioactive components from the leaves of Annona muricata, three novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, namely, annomutacin [1], (2,4-trans)-10R-annonacin-A-one [2], and (2,4-cis)-10R- annonacin-A-one [3], have been identified. Their structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. A known bioactive amide, N-p-coumaroyl tyramine, was also found. Compound 1 and the mixture of compounds 2 and 3 showed selective cytotoxicities against the human A-549 lung tumor cell line.

Soursop Cancer Hoax-The soursop (Annona muricata) is a broadleaf beginning beloved timberline by amedical

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The soursop (Annona muricata) is a broadleaf beginning beloved timberline built-in to Mexico, Venezuela, Central America, the Caribbean and arctic South America, Colombia and Brazil. Soursop is additionally built-in to sub-Saharan African countries that lie aural the tropics. Today, it is additionally developed in some areas of Southeast Asia. It is in the aforementioned brand as the chirimoya and the aforementioned ancestors as the pawpaw.

Soursop fruit.The soursop is acclimatized to areas of aerial clamminess and almost balmy winters; temperatures beneath 5°C/41°F will account accident to leaves and baby branches, and temperatures beneath 3°C/37.4°F can be fatal. The bake-apple becomes dry and is no best acceptable for concentrate.

Annona muricata var.subonicaOther accepted names include: guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Portuguese), Brazilian pawpaw, corossolier, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, nangka blanda, and nangka londa.[2] . In Malayalam, it is alleged “Mullaatha” , actually barbed custard apple.

Its acidity is declared as a aggregate of birthmark and pineapple with acerb citrus acidity addendum allegory with an basal buttery acidity evocative of attic or banana.

The bulb is developed as a bartering crop for its 20–30 cm /7.87-11.8 inch continued annoying blooming fruit, which can accept a accumulation of up to 2.5 kg/5.5 lbs.

Away from its built-in area, there is some bound assembly as far arctic as southern Florida aural USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for bounded consumption. It is additionally developed in genitalia of southeastern Asia. The soursop will reportedly bake-apple as a alembic specimen, alike in abstemious climates, if adequate from air-conditioned temperatures.[citation needed]

A.muricata flowerThe beef of the bake-apple consists of an comestible white lurid and a amount of boxy atramentous seeds. The breed is the alone affiliate of its brand that is acceptable for processing and preservation.[citation needed] The candied lurid is acclimated to accomplish abstract as able-bodied as candies, sorbets, and ice chrism flavorings.

In Mexico and Colombia, it is a accepted fruit, generally acclimated for ambrosia as the alone ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage, in Colombia it is a bake-apple for juices melting it with milk, most recent researches at the National University of Colombia, affirm this bake-apple as a able abeyant anti-cancer treatment. Ice chrism and bake-apple confined fabricated of soursop are additionally actual popular. The seeds are commonly larboard in the preparation, and removed while consuming.

Soursop Cancer Hoax

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Annona muricata

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Of the 60 or more species of the genus Annona, family Annonaceae, the soursop, A. muricata L., is the most tropical, the largest-fruited, and the only one lending itself well to preserving and processing.

It is generally known in most Spanish-speaking countries as guanabana; in E1 Salvador, as guanaba; in Guatemala, as huanaba; in Mexico, often as zopote de viejas, or cabeza de negro; in Venezuela, as catocheor catuche; in Argentina, as anona de puntitas or anona de broquel; in Bolivia, sinini; in Brazil, araticum do grande, graviola, or jaca do Para; in the Netherlands Antilles, sorsaka or zunrzak, the latter name also used in Surinam andJava; in French-speaking areas of the West Indies, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, especially North Vietnam, it is known as corossol, grand corossol, corossol epineux, or cachiman epineux. In Malaya it may be called durian belanda, durian maki; or seri kaya belanda; in Thailand, thu-rian-khack.

In 1951, Prof. Clery Salazar, who was encouraging the development of soursop products at the College of Agriculture at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, told me that they would like to adopt an English name more appealing than the word "soursop", and not as likely as guanabana to be mispronounced. To date, no altematives have been chosen.

Soursop
Plate 10: SOURSOP, Annona muricata
Exceptionally large and well-formed soursops
Fig. 20: Exceptionally large and well-formed soursops (Annona muricata) in a Saigon market, 1968.

Description

The soursop tree is low-branching and bushy but slender because of its upturned limbs, and reaches a height of 25 or 30 ft (7.5-9 m). Young branchlets are rusty-hairy. The malodorous leaves, normally evergreen, are alternate, smooth, glossy, dark green on the upper surface, lighter beneath; oblong, elliptic or narrowobovate, pointed at both ends, 2 1/2 to 8 in (6.25-20 cm) long and 1 to 2 1/2 in (2.5-6.25 cm) wide. The flowers, which are borne singly, may emerge anywhere on the trunk, branches or twigs. They are short stalked, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4 5 cm) long, plump, and triangular-conical, the 3 fleshy, slightly spreading, outer petals yellow-green, the 3 close-set inner petals pale-yellow.

The fruit is more or less oval or heart-shaped, some times irregular, lopsided or curved, due to improper carper development or insect injury. The size ranges from 4 to 12 in (10-30 cm) long and up to 6 in (15 cm) in width, and the weight may be up to 10 or 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 kg). The fruit is compound and covered with a reticulated, leathery-appearing but tender, inedible, bitter skin from which protrude few or many stubby, or more elongated and curved, soft, pliable "spines". The tips break off easily when the fruit is fully ripe. The skin is dark-green in the immature fruit, becoming slightly yellowish-green before the mature fruit is soft to the touch. Its inner surface is cream-colored and granular and separates easily from the mass of snow-white, fibrous, juicy segments—much like flakes of raw fish—surrounding the central, soft-pithy core. In aroma, the pulp is somewhat pineapple-like, but its musky, subacid to acid flavor is unique. Most of the closely-packed segments are seedless. In each fertile segment there is a single oval, smooth, hard, black seed, l/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) long; and a large fruit may contain from a few dozen to 200 or more seeds.

Origin and Distribution

Oviedo, in 1526, described the soursop as abundant in the West Indies and in northern South America. It is today found in Bermuda and the Bahamas, and both wild and cultivated, from sea-level to an altitude of 3,500 ft (1,150 m) throughout the West Indies and from southern Mexico to Peru and Argentina. It was one of the first fruit trees carried from America to the Old World Tropics where it has become widely distributed from southeastern China to Australia and the warm lowlands of eastern and western Africa. It is common in the markets of Malaya and southeast Asia. Very large, symmetrical fruits have been seen on sale in South Vietnam. It became well established at an early date in the Pacific Islands. The tree has been raised successfully but has never fruited in Israel.

In Florida, the soursop has been grown to a limited extent for possibly 110 years. Sturtevant noted that it was not included by Atwood among Florida fruits in 1867 but was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1879. A tree fruited at the home of John Fogarty of Manatee before the freeze of 1886. In the southeastern part of the state and especially on the Florida Keys, it is often planted in home gardens.

In regions where sweet fruits are preferred, as in South India and Guam, the soursop has not enjoyed great popularity. It is grown only to a limited extent in Madras. However, in the East Indies it has been acclaimed one of the best local fruits. In Honolulu, the fruit is occasionally sold but the demand exceeds the supply. The soursop is one of the most abundant fruits in the Dominican Republic and one of the most popular in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, Colombia and northeastern Brazil.

In 1887, Cuban soursops were selling in Key West, Florida, at 10 to 50 cents apiece. In 1920, Wilson Popenoe wrote that: "In the large cities of tropical America, there is a good demand for the fruits at all times of the year, a demand which is not adequately met at present." The island of Grenada produces particularly large and perfect soursops and regularly delivers them by boat to the market of Port-of Spain because of the shortage in Trinidad. In Colombia, where the soursop is generally large, well-formed and of high quality, this is one of the 14 tropical fruits recommended by the Instituto Latinoamericano de Mercadeo Agricola for large-scale planting and marketing. Soursops produced in small plots, none over 5 acres (2.27 ha), throughout Venezuela supply the processing plants where the frozen concentrate is packed in 6 oz (170 g) cans. In 1968, 2,266 tons (936 MT) of juice were processed in Venezuela. The strained pulp is also preserved commercially in Costa Rica. There are a few commercial soursop plantations near the south coast of Puerto Rico and several processing factories. In 1977, the Puerto Rican crop totaled 219,538 lbs (99,790 kg).

At the First International Congress of Agricultural and Food Industries of the Tropical and Subtropical Zones, held in 1964, scientists from the Research Laboratories of Nestle Products in Vevey, Switzerland, presented an evaluation of lesser-known tropical fruits and cited the soursop, the guava and passionfruit as the 3 most promising for the European market, because of their distinctive aromatic qualities and their suitability for processing in the form of preserved pulp, nectar and jelly.

Varieties

In Puerto Rico, the wide range of forms and types of seedling soursops are roughly divided into 3 general classifications: sweet, subacid, and acid; then subdivided as round, heart-shaped, oblong or angular; and finally classed according to flesh consistency which varies from soft and juicy to firm and comparatively dry. The University of Puerto Rico's Agricultural Experiment Station at one time cataloged 14 different types of soursops in an area between Aibonito and Coamo. In El Salvador, 2 types of soursops are distinguished: guanaba azucaron (sweet) eaten raw and used for drinks; and guanaba acida (very sour), used only for drinks. In the Dominican Republic, the guanabana dulce (sweet soursop) is most sought after. The term "sweet" is used in a relative sense to indicate low acidity. A medium-sized, yellow-green soursop calledguanabana sin fibre (fiberless) has been vegetatively propagated at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. The foliage of this superior clone is distinctly bluish-green. In 1920, Dr. Wilson Popenoe sent to the United States Department of Agriculture, from Costa Rica, budwood of a soursop he named 'Bennett' in honor of G.S. Bennett, Agricultural Superintendent of the Costa Rican Division of the United Fruit Company. He described the fruit as large and handsome (as shown in the photograph accompanying the introduction record No. 51050) and he declared the tree to be the most productive he had seen.

The soursop tree may bear fruits anywhere on its trunk.
Fig. 21: The soursop tree may bear fruits anywhere on its trunk or branches. Multiple-stems of this tree are the result of its having been frozen to the ground more than once.

Climate

The soursop is truly tropical. Young trees in exposed places in southem Florida are killed by only a few degrees of frost. The trees that survive to fruiting age on the mainland are in protected situations, close to the south side of a house and sometimes near a source of heat. Even so, there will be temporary defoliation and interruption of fruiting when the temperature drops to near freezing. In Key West, where the tropical breadfruit thrives, the soursop is perfectly at home. In Puerto Rico, the tree is said to prefer an altitude between 800 and 1,000 ft (244300 m), with moderate humidity, plenty of sun and shelter from strong winds.

Soil

Best growth is achieved in deep, rich, well-drained, semi-drysoil, but the soursop tree can be and is commonly grown in acid and sandy soil, and in the porous, oolitic limestone of South Florida and the Bahama Islands.

Propagation

The soursop is usually grown from seeds. They should be sown in flats or containers and kept moist and shaded. Germination takes from 15 to 30 days. Selected types can be reproduced by cuttings or by shield-budding. Soursop seedlings are generally the best stock for propagation, though grafting onto custard apple (Annona reticulata), the mountain soursop (A. montana), or pond apple (A. glabra), is usually successful. The pond apple has a dwarfing effect. Grafts on sugar apple (A. squamosa) and cherimoya (A. cherimola) do not live for long, despite the fact that the soursop is a satisfactory rootstock for sugar apple in Ceylon and India.

Culture

In ordinary practice, seedlings, when 1 ft (30 cm) or more in height are set out in the field at the beginning of the rainy season and spaced 12 to 15 ft (3.65-4.5 m) apart, though 25 ft (7.5 m) each way has been suggested. A spacing of 20 x 25 ft (6x7.5 m) allows 87 trees per acre (215/ha). Close-spacing, 8 x 8 ft (2.4x2.4 m) is thought aufficient for small gardens in Puerto Rico. The tree grows rapidly and begins to bear in 3 to 5 years. In Queensland, well-watered trees have attained 15 to 18 ft (4.5-5.5 m) in 6 to 7 years. Mulching is recommended to avoid dehydration of the shallow, fibrous root system during dry, hot weather. If in too dry a situation, the tree will cast off all of its old leaves before new ones appear. A fertilizer mixture containing 10% phosphoric acid, 10% potash and 3% nitrogen has been advocated in Cuba and Queensland. But excellent results have been obtained in Hawaii with quarterly applications of 10-10-10 N P K—1\2 lb (.225 kg) per tree the first year, 1 lb (.45 kg)/tree the 2nd year, 3 lbs (1.36 kg)/tree the 3rd year and thereafter.

Season

The soursop tends to flower and fruit more or less continuously, but in every growing area there is a principal season of ripening. In Puerto Rico, this is from March to June or September; in Queensland, it begins in April; in southern India, Mexico and Florida, it extends from June to September; in the Bahamas, it continues through October. In Hawaii, the early crop occurs from January to April; midseason crop, June to August, with peak in July; and there is a late crop in October or November.

Harvesting

The fruit is picked when full grown and still firm but slightly yellow-green. If allowed to soften on the tree, it will fall and crush. It is easily bruised and punctured and must be handled with care. Firm fruits are held a few days at room temperature. When eating ripe, they are soft enough to yield to the slight pressure of one's thumb. Having reached this stage, the fruit can be held 2 or 3 days longer in a refrigerator. The skin will blacken and become unsightly while the flesh is still unspoiled and usable. Studies of the ripening process in Hawaii have determined that the optimum stage for eating is 5 to 6 days after harvest, at the peak of ethylene production. Thereafter, the flavor is less pronounced and a faint offodor develops. In Venezuela, the chief handicap in commercial processing is that the fruits stored on racks in a cool shed must be gone over every day to select those that are ripe and ready for juice extraction.

Yield

The soursop, unfortunately, is a shy-bearer, the usual crop being 12 to 20 or 24 fruits per tree. In Puerto Rico, production of 5,000 to 8,000 lbs per acre (roughly equal kg/ha), is considered a good yield from well-cared-for trees. A study of the first crop of 35 5 year-old trees in Hawaii showed an average of 93.6 lbs (42.5 kg) of fruits per tree. Yield was slightly lower the 2nd year. The 3rd year, the average yield was 172 lbs (78 kg) per tree. At this rate, the annual crop would be 16,000 lbs per acre (roughly equal kg/ha).

Pests & Diseases

Queensland's principal soursop pest is the mealybug which may occur in masses on the fruits. The mealybug is a common pest also in Florida, where the tree is often infessed with scale insects. Sometimes it may be infected by a lace-wing bug.

The fruit is subject to attack by fruit flies—Anastrepha suspensa, A. striata and Ceratitis capitata. Red spiders are a problem in dry climates.

Dominguez Gil (1978 and 1983), presents an extensive list of pests of the soursop in the State of Zulia, Venezuela. The 5 most damaging are: 1) the wasp, Bephratelloides (Bephrata) maculicollis, the larvae of which live in the seeds and emerge from the fully-grown ripe fruit, leaving it perforated and highly perishable; 2) the moth, Cerconota (Stenoma) anonella, which lays its eggs in the very young fruit causing stunting and malformation; 3) Corythucha gossipii; which attacks the leaves; 4) Cratosomus inaequalis, which bores into the fruit, branches and trunk; 5) Laspeyresia sp., which perforates the flowers. The first 3 are among the 7 major pests of the soursop in Colombia, the other 4 being: Toxoptera aurantii; which affects shoots, young leaves, flowers and fruits; present but not important in Venezuela; Aphis spiraecola; Empoasca sp., attacking the leaves; and Aconophora concolor, damaging the flowers and fruits. Important beneficial agents preying on aphids are A phidius testataceipes, Chrysopa sp., and Curinus sp. Lesser enemies of the soursop in South America include: Talponia backeri and T. batesi which damage flowers and fruits; Horiola picta and H. lineolata, feeding on flowers and young branches; Membracis foliata, attacking young branches, flower stalks and fruits; Saissetia nigra; Escama ovalada, on branches, flowers and fruits; Cratosomus bombina, a fruit borer; and Cyclocephala signata, affecting the flowers.

In Trinidad, the damage done to soursop flowers by Thecla ortygnus seriously limits the cultivation of this fruit. The sphinx caterpillar, Cocytius antueus antueus may be found feeding on soursop leaves in Puerto Rico. Bagging of soursops is necessary to protect them from Cerconota anonella. However, one grower in the Magdalena Valley of Colombia claims that bagged fruits are more acid than others and the flowers have to be handpollinated.

It has been observed in Venezuela and El Salvador that soursop trees in very humid areas often grow well but bear only a few fruits, usually of poor quality, which are apt to rot at the tip. Most of their flowers and young fruits fall because of anthracnose caused by Collectotrichum gloeosporioides. It has been said that soursop trees for cultivation near San Juan, Puerto Rico, should be seedlings of trees from similarly humid areas which have greater resistance to anthracnose than seedlings from dry zones. The same fungus causes damping-off of seedlings and die-back of twigs and branches. Occasionally the fungus, Scolecotrichum sp. ruins the leaves in Venezuela. In the East Indies, soursop trees are sometimes subject to the root-fungi, Fomes lamaoensis and Diplodia sp. and by pink disease due to Corticum salmonicolor.

Canned soursop concentrate
Fig. 22: Canned soursop concentrate is produced in Venezuela. On the branch at the right is a soursop flower.

Food Uses

Soursops of least acid flavor and least fibrous consistency are cut in sections and the flesh eaten with a spoon. The seeded pulp may be torn or cut into bits and added to fruit cups or salads, or chilled and served as dessert with sugar and a little milk or cream. For years, seeded soursop has been canned in Mexico and served in Mexican restaurants in New York and other northern cities.

Most widespread throughout the tropics is the making of refreshing soursop drinks (called champola in Brazil; carato in Puerto Rico). For this purpose, the seeded pulp may be pressed in a colander or sieve or squeezed in cheesecloth to extract the rich, creamy juice, which is then beaten with milk or water and sweetened. Or the seeded pulp may be blended with an equal amount of boiling water and then strained and sweetened. If an electric blender is to be used, one must first be careful to remove all the seeds, since they are somewhat toxic and none should be accidentally ground up in the juice.

In Puerto Rican processing factories, the hand-peeled and cored fruits are passed through a mechanical pulper having nylon brushes that press the pulp through a screen, separating it from the seeds and fiber. A soursop soft drink, containing 12 to 15% pulp, is canned in Puerto Rico and keeps well for a year or more. The juice is prepared as a carbonated bottled beverage in Guatemala, and a fermented, cider-like drink is sometimes made in the West Indies. The vacuum-concentrated juice is canned commercially in the Philippines. There soursop drinks are popular but the normal "milk" color is not. The people usually add pink or green food coloring to make the drinks more attractive. The strained pulp is said to be a delicacy mixed with wine or brandy and seasoned with nutmeg. Soursop juice, thickened with a little gelatin, makes an agreeable dessert.

In the Dominican Republic, a soursop custard is enjoyed and a confection is made by cooking soursop pulp in sugar sirup with cinnamon and lemon peel. Soursop ice cream is commonly frozen in refrigerator ice-cube trays in warm countries.

In the Bahamas, it is simply made by mashing the pulp in water, letting it stand, then straining to remove fibrous material and seeds. The liquid is then blended with sweetened condensed milk, poured into the trays and stirred several times while freezing. A richer product is made by the usual method of preparing an ice cream mix and adding strained soursop pulp just before freezing. Some Key West restaurants have always served soursop ice cream and now the influx of residents from the Caribbean and Latin American countries has created a strong demand for it. The canned pulp is imported from Central America and Puerto Rico and used in making ice cream and sherbet commercially. The pulp is used, too, for making tarts and jelly, sirup and nectar. The sirup has been bottled in Puerto Rico for local use and export. The nectar is canned in Colombia and frozen in Puerto Rico and is prepared fresh and sold in paper cartons in the Netherlands Antilles. The strained, frozen pulp is sold in plastic bags in Philippine supermarkets.

Immature soursops are cooked as vegetables or used in soup in Indonesia. They are roasted or fried in northeastern Brazil. I have boiled the half-grown fruit whole, without peeling. In an hour, the fruit is tender, its flesh off-white and mealy, with the aroma and flavor of roasted ears of green corn (maize).

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*

Calories61.3-53.1
Moisture82.8g
Protein1.00g
Fat0.97g
Carbohydrates14.63g
Fiber0.79g
Ash60g
Calcium10.3 mg
Phosphorus27.7 mg
Iron0.64 mg
Vitamin A (B-carotene)0
Thiamine0.11 mg
Riboflavin0.05 mg
Niacin1.28mg
Ascorbic Acid29.6 mg
Amino Acids:
Tryptophan11 mg
Methionine7 mg
Lysine60mg
*Analyses made at the Laboratorio FIM de Nutricion, Havana, Cuba.

Toxicity

The presence of the alkaloids anonaine and anoniine has been reported in this species. The alkaloids muricine, C19H21O4N (possibly des-N-methylisocorydine or des-N methylcorydine) and muricinine, C18H19O4(possibly des-N-methylcorytuberine), are found in the bark. Muricinine is believed to be identical to reticuline. An unnamed alkaloid occurs in the leaves and seeds. The bark is high in hydrocyanic acid. Only small amounts are found in the leaves and roots and a trace in the fruit. The seeds contain 45% of a yellow non-drying oil which is an irritant poison, causing severe eye inflarnmation.

Other Uses

Fruit: In the Virgin Islands, the fruit is placed as a bait in fish traps.

Seeds: When pulverized, the seeds are effective pesticides against head lice, southern army worms and pea aphids and petroleum ether and chloroform extracts are toxic to black carpet beetle larvae. The seed oil kills head lice.

Leaves: The leaf decoction is lethal to head lice and bedbugs.

Bark: The bark of the tree has been used in tanning. The bark fiber is strong but, since fruiting trees are not expendable, is resorted to only in necessity. Bark, as well as seeds and roots, has been used as fish poison.

Wood: The wood is pale, aromatic, soft, light in weight and not durable. It has been used for ox yokes because it does not cause hair loss on the neck.

In Colombia, it is deemed to be suitable for pipestems and barrelstaves. Analyses in Brazil show cellulose content of 65 to 76%, high enough to be a potential source of paper pulp.

Medicinal Uses: The juice of the ripe fruit is said to be diuretic and a remedy for haematuria and urethritis. Taken when fasting, it is believed to relieve liver ailments and leprosy. Pulverized immature fruits, which are very astringent, are decocted as a dysentery remedy. To draw out chiggers and speed healing, the flesh of an acid soursop is applied as a poultice unchanged for 3 days.

In Materia Medica of British Guiana, we are told to break soursop leaves in water, "squeeze a couple of limes therein, get a drunken man and rub his head well with the leaves and water and give him a little of the water to drink and he gets as sober as a judge in no time." This sobering or tranquilizing formula may not have been widely tested, but soursop leaves are regarded throughout the West Indies as having sedative or soporific properties. In the Netherlands Antilles, the leaves are put into one's pillowslip or strewn on the bed to promote a good night's sleep. An infusion of the leaves is commonly taken internally for the same purpose. It is taken as an analgesic and antispasmodic in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. In Africa, it is given to children with fever and they are also bathed lightly with it. A decoction of the young shoots or leaves is regarded in the West Indies as a remedy for gall bladder trouble, as well as coughs, catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery and indigestion; is said to "cool the blood," and to be able to stop vomiting and aid delivery in childbirth. The decoction is also employed in wet compresses on inflammations and swollen feet. The chewed leaves, mixed with saliva, are applied to incisions after surgery, causing proudflesh to disappear without leaving a scar. Mashed leaves are used as a poultice to alleviate eczema and other skin afflictions and rheumatism, and the sap of young leaves is put on skin eruptions.

The roots of the tree are employed as a vermifuge and the root bark as an antidote for poisoning. A tincture of the powdered seeds and bay rum is a strong emetic. Soursop flowers are believed to alleviate catarrh.

===

Dari 60 atau lebih spesies dari genus Annona, keluarga Annonaceae, yang sirsak, A. muricata L., adalah yang paling tropis, terbesar berbuah, dan pinjaman satu-satunya sendiri baik untuk melestarikan dan pengolahan.
Hal ini umumnya dikenal di negara-negara berbahasa Spanyol yang paling sebagai guanabana; di Salvador E1, seperti guanaba, di Guatemala, sebagai huanaba, di Meksiko, seringkali sebagai zopote de viejas, atau cabeza de negro, di Venezuela, sebagai catoche atau catuche; di Argentina , sebagai Anona de puntitas atau Anona de broquel, di Bolivia, sinini, di Brazil, araticum lakukan grande, Graviola, atau Jaca melakukan Para, di Antilles Belanda, sorsaka atau zunrzak, nama terakhir juga digunakan di Suriname andJava; dalam bahasa Perancis- berbicara daerah Hindia Barat, Afrika Barat, dan Asia Tenggara, khususnya Vietnam Utara, ini dikenal sebagai corossol, corossol grand, corossol epineux, atau epineux cachiman. Di Malaya itu dapat disebut durian belanda, maki durian, atau seri kaya belanda, di Thailand, thu-rian-khack.

Pada tahun 1951, Prof Clery Salazar, yang mendorong pengembangan produk sirsak di Fakultas Pertanian di Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, mengatakan kepada saya bahwa mereka ingin mengadopsi nama bahasa Inggris lebih menarik dari kata "sirsak", dan bukan sebagai mungkin sebagai guanabana akan mispronounced. Sampai saat ini, tidak ada altematives telah terpilih.


Plate 10: SIRSAK, Annona muricata

Gambar. 20: sangat besar dan well-formed soursops (Annona muricata) di pasar Saigon, 1968.

Deskripsi

Pohon sirsak rendah-bercabang dan tebal tetapi ramping karena anggota badan terbalik, dan mencapai ketinggian sekitar 25 atau 30 ft (7,5-9 m). branchlets muda berkarat-berbulu. Daun berbau busuk, biasanya hijau, adalah alternatif, halus, mengkilap, hijau tua di permukaan atas, lebih ringan di bawah; lonjong, elips atau narrowobovate, menunjuk pada kedua ujungnya, 2 1 / 2 sampai 8 in (6,25-20 cm) panjang dan 01-02 Januari / 2 in (2,5-6,25 cm) lebar. Bunga-bunga, yang ditanggung sendiri-sendiri, mungkin muncul di manapun di cabang-cabang batang, atau ranting.Mereka mengintai pendek, 1 1 / 2 dengan 2 dalam (4 5 cm) panjang, gemuk, dan segitiga kerucut, yang berdaging 3, sedikit menyebarkan, kelopak luar kuning-hijau, 3 kelopak bagian dalam dekat-set-kuning pucat.

Buah ini berbentuk oval lebih atau kurang atau berbentuk hati, beberapa kali tidak teratur, miring atau melengkung, karena pembangunan yang tidak tepat atau cedera pengomel serangga. Ukuran berkisar dari 4 sampai 12 dalam (10-30 cm) panjang dan sampai dengan 6 (15 cm) lebarnya, dan berat mungkin sampai 10 atau 15 lbs (4,5-6,8 kg). Buah ini senyawa dan ditutup dengan reticulated, kasar-muncul tapi lembut, dapat dimakan, kulit pahit dari yang sedikit atau banyak menonjol pendek, atau lebih memanjang dan melengkung, lembut, lentur "duri". Tips memutuskan mudah ketika buah sudah masak. Kulit hijau gelap dalam buah matang, menjadi agak kekuningan-hijau sebelum buah matang adalah lembut untuk disentuh. permukaan batin adalah berwarna krem ​​dan granular dan memisahkan dengan mudah dari massa salju-putih, berserat, berair-segmen seperti serpihan bahan baku ikan-sekitar inti, pusat soft-bernas. Dalam aroma, pulp agak mirip nanas, tapi musky nya, subacid untuk rasa asam yang unik. Sebagian besar segmen erat-dikemas yang tanpa biji. Dalam setiap segmen subur ada oval tunggal, halus, keras, biji hitam, l / 2 sampai 3 / 4 dalam (1,25-2 cm) panjang, dan buah besar mungkin berisi dari beberapa lusin untuk 200 atau lebih benih.

Asal dan Distribusi

Oviedo, tahun 1526, menggambarkan sirsak sebagai melimpah di Hindia Barat dan di Amerika Selatan bagian utara. Sekarang ini ditemukan di Bermuda dan Bahama, dan keduanya liar dan dibudidayakan, dari permukaan laut ke ketinggian 3.500 kaki (1.150 m) di seluruh Hindia Barat dan dari Meksiko selatan ke Peru dan Argentina. Itu adalah salah satu pohon buah pertama dibawa dari Amerika ke Dunia Lama Tropis di mana ia telah menjadi luas dari China tenggara ke Australia dan dataran rendah hangat dari Afrika timur dan barat. Hal ini umum di pasar Malaya dan Asia Tenggara. Sangat besar, buah-buahan simetris telah dilihat dijual di Vietnam Selatan. Ini menjadi mapan pada tanggal awal di Kepulauan Pasifik. Pohon itu telah dibangkitkan berhasil tetapi tidak pernah berbuah di Israel.

Di Florida, sirsak telah berkembang sampai batas tertentu untuk mungkin 110 tahun.Sturtevant mencatat bahwa tidak termasuk oleh Atwood antara buah-buahan Florida pada tahun 1867 tapi terdaftar oleh American Pomological Society pada tahun 1879.Sebatang pohon berbuah di rumah John Fogarty dari Manatee sebelum membekukan 1886. Di bagian tenggara negara dan khususnya di Florida Keys, sering ditanam di kebun rumah.

Di daerah di mana buah-buahan manis lebih disukai, seperti di India Selatan dan Guam, sirsak belum menikmati popularitas besar. Hal ini tumbuh hanya sampai batas tertentu di Madras. Namun, di Hindia Timur telah diakui menjadi salah satu buah lokal terbaik. Dalam Honolulu, buah ini kadang-kadang dijual tetapi permintaan melebihi pasokan. sirsak adalah salah satu buah paling berlimpah di Republik Dominika dan salah satu yang paling populer di Kuba, Puerto Rico, Bahama, Kolombia dan Brasil timur laut.

Pada tahun 1887, soursops Kuba yang menjual di Key West, Florida, pada 10 sampai 50 sen masing-masing. Pada 1920, Wilson Popenoe menulis bahwa: "Di kota-kota besar Amerika tropis, ada permintaan baik untuk buah-buahan di sepanjang tahun, sebuah permintaan yang tidak cukup terpenuhi saat ini." Pulau Grenada menghasilkan soursops terutama yang besar dan sempurna dan teratur memberikan mereka dengan perahu ke pasar Port-dari Spanyol karena kekurangan di Trinidad. Di Kolombia, di mana sirsak umumnya besar, well-formed dan berkualitas tinggi, ini adalah salah satu dari 14 buah-buahan tropis yang direkomendasikan oleh Latinoamericano Instituto de Mercadeo Agricola untuk penanaman skala besar dan pemasaran. Soursops diproduksi di petak kecil, tidak lebih dari 5 hektar (2,27 ha), seluruh Venezuela memasok pabrik pengolahan dimana berkonsentrasi beku dikemas dalam 6 oz (170 g) kaleng. Pada tahun 1968, 2.266 ton (936 MT) jus diproses di Venezuela. Pulp yang tegang juga diawetkan secara komersial di Kosta Rika. Ada beberapa perkebunan sirsak komersial dekat pantai selatan Puerto Rico dan beberapa pabrik pengolahan.Pada tahun 1977, tanaman Puerto Rico berjumlah £ 219.538 (99.790 kg).

Pada Kongres Internasional Pertama Pertanian dan Industri Makanan Tropis dan Subtropis Zona, diadakan pada tahun 1964, ilmuwan dari Laboratorium Penelitian Produk Nestle di Vevey, Swiss, mempresentasikan evaluasi buah-buahan tropis yang kurang dikenal dan dikutip sirsak itu, jambu biji dan markisa sebagai 3 paling menjanjikan untuk pasar Eropa, karena sifat khas mereka aromatik dan kesesuaian mereka untuk diproses dalam bentuk diawetkan, nektar pulp dan jelly.

Varietas

Dalam Puerto Rico, berbagai macam bentuk dan jenis bibit soursops dibagi menjadi 3 klasifikasi umum: manis, subacid, dan asam, kemudian dibagi lagi sebagai bulat, berbentuk hati, lonjong atau sudut, dan akhirnya digolongkan menurut konsistensi daging yang bervariasi dari lembut dan juicy ke perusahaan dan relatif kering. University of Puerto Rico Stasiun Percobaan Pertanian pada satu waktu di katalog 14 jenis soursops di daerah antara Aibonito dan Coamo. Di El Salvador, 2 jenis soursops dibedakan: guanaba azucaron (manis) dimakan mentah dan digunakan untuk minuman, dan guanaba acida (sangat asam), digunakan hanya untuk minuman. Di Republik Dominika, yang guanabana dulce (sirsak manis) yang paling dicari. Istilah "manis" digunakan dalam arti untuk menunjukkan keasaman relatif rendah. Sebuah sirsak, menengah kuning-hijau guanabana serat disebut dosa (fiberless) telah vegetatif di Stasiun Percobaan Pertanian di Santiago de las Vegas, Kuba. Dedaunan klon unggul ini adalah jelas kebiruan-hijau. Pada 1920, Dr Wilson Popenoe dikirim ke Amerika Serikat Departemen Pertanian, dari Kosta Rika, Tunas dari sirsak ia bernama 'Bennett' untuk menghormati GS Bennett, Pertanian Pengawas dari Kosta Rika Divisi United Fruit Company. Dia menggambarkan buah sama besar dan tampan (seperti terlihat pada foto yang menyertai catatan No pengenalan 51.050) dan dia menyatakan pohon yang paling produktif yang telah dilihatnya.


Gambar. 21: Pohon sirsak dapat menghasilkan buah di mana saja pada batang atau cabang. Multiple-batang pohon ini adalah hasil dari perusahaan yang telah dibekukan ke tanah lebih dari sekali.

Iklim

sirsak adalah benar-benar tropis. pohon muda di tempat terbuka di Florida southem dibunuh oleh hanya beberapa derajat embun beku. Pohon-pohon yang bertahan untuk berbuah umur di daratan berada dalam situasi dilindungi, dekat ke sisi selatan rumah dan kadang-kadang dekat sumber panas. Meski begitu, akan ada defoliasi sementara dan gangguan dari berbuah ketika suhu turun menjadi beku dekat. Di Key West, di mana sukun tropis berkembang, sirsak adalah sempurna di rumah. Dalam Puerto Rico, pohon dikatakan lebih memilih ketinggian antara 800 dan 1.000 ft (244.300 m), dengan kelembaban moderat, banyak matahari dan berlindung dari angin kencang.

Tanah

pertumbuhan terbaik dicapai di dalam, kaya, baik dikeringkan, semi-drysoil, pohon tetapi dapat sirsak dan umumnya tumbuh di asam dan tanah berpasir, dan di batu kapur, berpori oolitic Florida Selatan dan Kepulauan Bahama.

Perambatan

sirsak biasanya tumbuh dari biji. Mereka harus ditanam di flat atau kontainer dan terus lembab dan teduh. Perkecambahan ambil dari 15 sampai 30 hari. Dipilih jenis dapat diperbanyak dengan cara stek atau dengan perisai-tunas. bibit Sirsak umumnya saham terbaik untuk dibudidayakan, meskipun penyambungan ke custard apple (Annona reticulata), yang sirsak gunung (A. montana), atau apel kolam (A. glabra), biasanya berhasil. Kolam apel memiliki efek pengerdilan. Cangkokan pada apel gula (A. squamosa) dan cherimoya (A. cherimola) tidak hidup lama, meskipun fakta bahwa sirsak adalah batang bawah memuaskan bagi apel gula di Ceylon dan India.

Budaya

Dalam prakteknya biasa, bibit, ketika 1 ft (30 cm) atau lebih tinggi ditetapkan di lapangan pada awal musim hujan dan berjarak 12 sampai 15 ft (3,65-4,5 m) terpisah, meskipun 25 ft (7,5 m ) cara masing-masing telah disarankan. Sebuah jarak 20 25 ft x (6x7.5 m) memungkinkan 87 pohon per hektar (215/ha). Close-jarak, 8 x 8 ft (2.4x2.4 m) diperkirakan aufficient untuk kebun kecil di Puerto Rico. Pohon itu tumbuh dengan cepat dan mulai melahirkan dalam 3 sampai 5 tahun. Di Queensland, pohon baik disiram telah mencapai 15 hingga 18 kaki (4,5-5,5 m) di 6 sampai 7 tahun. Mulsa dianjurkan untuk menghindari dehidrasi dari sistem, akar dangkal berserat selama kering, cuaca panas. Jika dalam situasi terlalu kering, pohon akan membuang semua daun tua sebelum yang baru muncul. Campuran pupuk yang mengandung asam fosfat 10%, garam abu 10% dan 3% nitrogen telah menganjurkan di Kuba dan Queensland. Tetapi hasil yang sangat baik telah diperoleh di Hawaii dengan aplikasi NPK 10-10-10 triwulanan-1 \ 2 lb (0,225 kg) per pohon tahun pertama, 1 lb (0,45 kg) / pohon tahun ke-2, 3 lbs ( 1,36 kg) / pohon 3 tahun dan sesudahnya.

Musim

sirsak ini cenderung bunga dan buah lebih atau kurang terus menerus, namun di setiap daerah berkembang ada musim utama pematangan. Dalam Puerto Rico, ini adalah dari bulan Maret sampai Juni atau September; di Queensland, dimulai pada bulan April, di selatan India, Meksiko dan Florida, ia meluas dari bulan Juni sampai September; di Bahama, terus sampai Oktober. Di Hawaii, tanaman awal terjadi dari bulan Januari sampai April; midseason tanaman, Juni sampai Agustus, dengan puncak pada bulan Juli, dan ada tanaman akhir pada bulan Oktober atau November.

Pemanenan

Buah ini dipetik ketika tumbuh penuh dan masih tegas tapi agak kuning-hijau. Jika dibiarkan untuk melunakkan di pohon, itu akan jatuh dan menghancurkan. Hal ini mudah memar dan tertusuk dan harus ditangani dengan hati-hati. buah Kantor diadakan beberapa hari pada suhu kamar. Ketika makan matang, mereka cukup lunak untuk menyerah pada tekanan sedikit ibu jari seseorang. Setelah mencapai tahap ini, buah dapat diselenggarakan 2 atau 3 hari lagi di kulkas. Kulit akan menghitam dan menjadi sedap dipandang sedangkan tubuh masih belum terjamah dan bermanfaat. Studi dari proses pemasakan di Hawaii telah menentukan bahwa tahap optimum untuk makan 5 sampai 6 hari setelah panen, pada puncak produksi etilen. Setelah itu, rasa kurang diucapkan dan offodor samar berkembang. Di Venezuela, cacat kepala dalam pengolahan komersial adalah bahwa buah-buahan yang tersimpan di rak dalam gudang dingin harus pergi selama setiap hari untuk memilih mereka yang telah matang dan siap untuk ekstraksi jus.

Hasil

sirsak tersebut, sayangnya, adalah media-malu, tanaman biasa yang 12 sampai 20 atau 24 buah per pohon. Dalam Puerto Rico, produksi 5.000 hingga £ 8.000 per hektar (kira-kira sama kg / ha), dianggap sebagai hasil yang baik dari sumur-peduli-untuk pohon. Sebuah studi tentang tanaman pertama dari 35 5 pohon tahun di Hawaii menunjukkan rata-rata £ 93,6 (42,5 kg) buah per pohon. Hasil sedikit lebih rendah tahun 2. Ke-3 tahun, hasil rata-rata adalah £ 172 (78 kg) per pohon. Pada tingkat ini, tanaman tahunan akan £ 16.000 per hektar (kira-kira sama kg / ha).

Hama & Penyakit

sirsak utama Queensland hama adalah kutu putih yang dapat terjadi dalam massa pada buah-buahan. kutu putih adalah hama yang umum juga di Florida, di mana pohon sering infessed dengan skala serangga. Kadang-kadang mungkin terinfeksi oleh bug renda-sayap.

Buah ini tunduk pada serangan lalat buah-Anastrepha suspensa, striata A. dan capitata Ceratitis. laba-laba merah adalah masalah dalam iklim kering.

Gil Dominguez (1978 dan 1983), menyajikan daftar panjang hama dari sirsak di Negara Bagian Zulia, Venezuela. 5 paling merusak adalah: 1) tawon, Bephratelloides (Bephrata) maculicollis, larva yang hidup dalam benih dan muncul dari buah yang matang penuh tumbuh, meninggalkannya berlubang dan sangat mudah rusak, 2) ngengat, Cerconota (Stenoma ) anonella, yang bertelur dalam buah sangat muda menyebabkan kebantutan dan kelainan; 3) Corythucha gossipii; yang menyerang daun; 4) Cratosomus inaequalis, yang membosankan menjadi buah, cabang dan batang;. 5) Laspeyresia sp, yang perforates bunga-bunga. Yang pertama 3 di antara 7 hama utama sirsak di Kolombia, yang lain 4 menjadi: Toxoptera aurantii; yang mempengaruhi tunas, daun muda, bunga dan buah-buahan; spiraecola Aphis,, ada tapi tidak penting di Venezuela Empoasca sp, menyerang. daun, dan concolor Aconophora, merusak bunga-bunga dan buah-buahan. Penting agen menguntungkan menggerogoti afid adalah A testataceipes phidius, Chrysopa sp, dan. Sp Curinus. Lesser musuh sirsak di Amerika Selatan termasuk: Talponia backeri dan batesi T. yang merusak bunga dan buah-buahan; picta Horiola dan lineolata H., makan pada bunga dan cabang muda; foliata Membracis, menyerang cabang muda, tangkai bunga dan buah-buahan; nigra Saissetia ; ovalada Escama, pada cabang, bunga dan buah-buahan; bombina Cratosomus, sebuah penggerek buah, dan signata Cyclocephala, mempengaruhi bunga.

Di Trinidad, kerusakan yang dilakukan pada sirsak bunga oleh ortygnus Thecla serius membatasi budidaya buah ini. Ulat sphinx, antueus Cocytius antueus dapat ditemukan makan pada daun sirsak di Puerto Rico. Mengantongi dari soursops diperlukan untuk melindungi mereka dari anonella Cerconota. Namun, salah satu petani di Lembah Magdalena klaim Colombia bahwa buah-buahan kantong adalah asam lebih dari yang lain dan bunga-bunga harus handpollinated.

Telah diamati di Venezuela dan El Salvador yang sirsak pohon di daerah sangat lembab sering tumbuh dengan baik, namun hanya menanggung beberapa buah, biasanya berkualitas buruk, yang cenderung membusuk di ujung. Sebagian besar bunga dan buah muda jatuh karena antraknos disebabkan oleh gloeosporioides Collectotrichum. Dikatakan bahwa pohon sirsak untuk budidaya dekat San Juan, Puerto Rico, harus bibit pohon dari daerah yang sama lembab yang memiliki ketahanan yang lebih besar untuk antraknosa dari bibit dari zona kering. Jamur yang sama menyebabkan damping-off dari bibit dan mati-belakang ranting dan cabang. Kadang-kadang jamur, Scolecotrichum sp. reruntuhan daun di Venezuela. Di Hindia Timur, pohon sirsak kadang-kadang tunduk pada jamur akar-, lamaoensis Fomes dan Diplodia sp. dan oleh penyakit pink karena salmonicolor Corticum.


Gambar. 22: konsentrat sirsak Kalengan diproduksi di Venezuela. Pada cabang di sebelah kanan adalah bunga sirsak.

Makanan Menggunakan

Soursops rasa asam sedikit dan konsistensi berserat sedikit dipotong di bagian dan daging dimakan dengan sendok. Pulp Unggulan mungkin robek atau dipotong menjadi bit dan ditambahkan ke cangkir buah atau salad, atau dingin dan menjabat sebagai dessert dengan gula dan sedikit susu atau krim. Selama bertahun-tahun, sirsak unggulan telah kalengan di Meksiko dan disajikan di restoran Meksiko di New York dan kota-kota utara lainnya.

Paling luas di seluruh daerah tropis adalah pembuatan minuman menyegarkan sirsak (disebut champola di Brasil; carato di Puerto Rico). Untuk tujuan ini, pulp unggulan dapat ditekan di saringan atau ayakan atau diperas dalam kain katun tipis untuk mengekstrak jus, kaya krim, yang kemudian dipukul dengan susu atau air dan manis.Atau mungkin unggulan pulp dicampur dengan jumlah yang sama air mendidih dan disaring dan manis. Jika blender listrik akan digunakan, yang pertama harus berhati-hati untuk menghapus semua benih, karena mereka agak beracun dan tidak harus sengaja tanah di jus.

Di pabrik pengolahan Puerto Rico, tangan-kupas dan cored buah melewati saring mekanis yang memiliki sikat nilon bahwa pers pulp melalui layar, memisahkannya dari biji dan serat. Sebuah sirsak minuman ringan, yang mengandung pulp 12 hingga 15%, yang kaleng di Puerto Rico dan menjaga baik untuk satu tahun atau lebih. Jus disiapkan sebagai botol minuman berkarbonasi di Guatemala, dan minuman, fermentasi sari seperti ini kadang-kadang dibuat di Hindia Barat. Jus vakum-terkonsentrasi adalah kaleng komersial di Filipina. Sirsak Ada minuman yang populer tetapi normal "susu" warna tidak. Orang-orang biasanya menambahkan makanan merah muda atau hijau mewarnai untuk membuat minuman lebih menarik. Pulp yang tegang dikatakan lezat dicampur dengan anggur atau brendi dan dibumbui dengan pala. Jus Sirsak, menebal dengan gelatin sedikit, membuat hidangan penutup menyenangkan.

Di Republik Dominika, sebuah puding sirsak dinikmati dan konpeksi dibuat dengan memasak pulp sirsak dalam sirop gula dengan kayu manis dan kulit lemon. Sirsak es krim umumnya beku di rak lemari es es batu di negara-negara hangat.

Dalam Bahama, itu hanyalah dibuat oleh menumbuk pulp dalam air, membiarkannya berdiri, kemudian berusaha untuk menghilangkan bahan berserat dan biji. Cairan ini kemudian dicampur dengan susu kental manis, dituangkan ke dalam baki dan diaduk beberapa kali saat titik beku. Sebuah produk kaya dibuat dengan metode yang biasa mempersiapkan suatu campuran es krim dan menambahkan pulp sirsak tegang sebelum titik beku. Beberapa Key West restoran selalu dilayani es krim sirsak dan sekarang masuknya warga dari Karibia dan negara-negara Amerika Latin telah menciptakan permintaan yang kuat untuk itu. The pulp kaleng diimpor dari Amerika Tengah dan Puerto Rico dan digunakan dalam pembuatan es krim dan serbat komersial. pulp yang digunakan, terlalu, untuk membuat kue tar dan jelly, sirup dan nektar. sirop ini telah kemasan di Puerto Rico untuk penggunaan lokal dan ekspor.nektar ini kalengan di Kolombia dan beku di Puerto Rico dan disusun segar dan dijual dalam karton kertas di Antilles Belanda. Pulp, disaring beku dijual dalam kantong plastik di supermarket Filipina.

Tanaman belum soursops dimasak sebagai sayur atau digunakan dalam sup di Indonesia. Mereka dipanggang atau digoreng di Brasil bagian timur laut. Saya telah direbus seluruh buah setengah tumbuh, tanpa pengelupasan. Dalam satu jam, buah empuk, dagingnya off-putih dan bertepung, dengan aroma dan rasa dari telinga panggang jagung hijau (jagung).

Makanan Nilai Per 100 g Bagian Edible *

Kalori 61,3-53,1
Kelembaban 82.8g
Protein 1.00g
Fat 0.97g
Karbohidrat 14.63g
Serat 0.79g
Ash 60g
10.3 mg Kalsium
Fosfor 27,7 mg
Besi 0,64 mg
Vitamin A (B-karoten) 0
Tiamin 0,11 mg
Riboflavin 0,05 mg
Niacin 1.28mg
Asam askorbat 29,6 mg
Asam Amino:
Triptofan 11 mg
Metionin 7 mg
Lysine 60mg
* Analisis dilakukan di Laboratorio FIM de Nutricion, Havana, Kuba.


Kebisaan

Kehadiran anonaine alkaloid dan anoniine telah dilaporkan dalam spesies ini. The muricine alkaloid, C19H21O4N (mungkin des-N-methylisocorydine atau des methylcorydine-N) dan muricinine, C18H19O4 (mungkin des-N-methylcorytuberine), ditemukan dalam kulit. Muricinine diyakini identik dengan retikulin. Sebuah alkaloid tidak disebutkan namanya terjadi di daun dan biji. Kulit tinggi dalam asam hidrosianik.Hanya jumlah kecil ditemukan dalam daun dan akar dan jejak dalam buah. Benih berisi 45% dari minyak non-pengeringan kuning yang merupakan racun iritan, menyebabkan inflarnmation mata parah.


Penggunaan lainnya

Buah: Di Kepulauan Virgin, buah ditempatkan sebagai umpan di perangkap ikan.

Benih: Bila dihancurkan, benih pestisida efektif terhadap kutu kepala, cacing tentara selatan dan kutu daun kacang dan petroleum eter dan ekstrak kloroform beracun untuk larva kumbang karpet hitam. Minyak biji membunuh kutu.

Daun: The rebusan daun mematikan kutu kepala dan kutu busuk.

Bark: Kulit pohon telah digunakan dalam penyamakan. Serat kulit kuat tetapi, karena pohon-pohon berbuah tidak dibuang, ini terpaksa hanya dalam kebutuhan. Bark, serta biji dan akar, telah digunakan sebagai racun ikan.

Kayu: Kayu pucat, aromatik, lembut, ringan dan tidak tahan lama. Telah digunakan untuk kuk sapi karena tidak menyebabkan rambut rontok pada leher.

Di Kolombia, itu dianggap cocok untuk pipestems dan barrelstaves. Analisis di Brasil menunjukkan kadar selulosa dari 65 menjadi 76%, cukup tinggi untuk menjadi sumber potensial dari pulp kertas.

Obat Kegunaan: Jus dari buah masak dikatakan diuretik dan obat untuk hematuria dan uretritis. Diambil ketika puasa, diyakini dapat meringankan penyakit hati dan kusta.Bubuk belum menghasilkan buah-buahan, yang sangat astringent, adalah decocted sebagai obat disentri. Untuk menarik keluar chiggers dan mempercepat penyembuhan, daging dari sirsak asam diterapkan sebagai tapal tidak berubah selama 3 hari.

Dalam Materia Medica of British Guyana, kita diberitahu untuk mematahkan daun sirsak dalam air, "memeras beberapa limau di dalamnya, mendapatkan orang mabuk dan menggosok kepalanya dengan baik dengan daun dan air dan memberinya sedikit air untuk minum dan dia mendapatkan sebagai mabuk sebagai hakim dalam waktu singkat. " Formula serius atau penenang mungkin tidak diuji secara luas, namun daun sirsak dianggap seluruh Hindia Barat memiliki sifat penenang atau obat tidur. Di Antilles Belanda, daun dimasukkan ke ulas satu atau berserakan di atas tempat tidur untuk mempromosikan tidur yang nyenyak. Infus daun umumnya diambil secara internal untuk tujuan yang sama. Hal ini diambil sebagai analgesik dan antispasmodic di Provinsi Esmeraldas, Ekuador. Di Afrika, hal ini diberikan kepada anak-anak dengan demam dan mereka juga bermandikan ringan dengan itu. Sebuah ramuan dari pucuk daun muda atau dianggap di Hindia Barat sebagai obat untuk masalah kantung empedu, serta batuk, penyakit selesema, diare, disentri dan gangguan pencernaan, yang dikatakan untuk "mendinginkan darah," dan untuk dapat berhenti muntah dan pengiriman bantuan dalam persalinan. ramuan ini juga bekerja di kompres basah pada radang dan kaki bengkak. Daun dikunyah, dicampur dengan air liur, diterapkan untuk sayatan setelah operasi, menyebabkan proudflesh menghilang tanpa meninggalkan bekas luka. tumbuk daun digunakan sebagai tapal untuk mengurangi penderitaan kulit eksim dan lainnya dan rematik, dan getah daun muda diletakkan pada letusan kulit.

Akar pohon bekerja sebagai vermifuge dan kulit akar sebagai penawar untuk keracunan. Sebuah tingtur benih bubuk dan rum teluk adalah emetik kuat. Sirsak bunga diyakini meringankan penyakit selesema.

KEBUN SIRSAK : Menjual Daun,Bunga, Buah, Biji, Kulit Batang sirsak